One of the most important activities in working with the staff is the analysis of the activity, determination of the criteria, and professional selection for the workplace.
Professional recruitment should be made for all types of professions, but its nature is specified depending on the content of the profession itself.
The development of professional selection and recruitment began with Taylor – the selection of people with certain physical data who are believed to perform their work more efficiently. Taylor is not interested in the personal and motivational characteristics of the candidates. The analysis of the activity is also incomplete – it is based only on observations, and it is not psychological.
Later, psychotechnicians develop professional recruitment, the main thing here is that they begin to perform an analysis of work and more important for its implementation characteristics, outline the criteria by which candidates will be examined. At that time, the relevant methods did not yet exist, so the proposed methods are not psychometric – they divide people into separate parts, examining them in part (unsystematic personal approach). They are not interested in the overall appearance of the person, in his motives for work. Reference: Educational Masters University Club, Educational support for students, https://www.mu7club.com/
Later, separate methodologies for professional selection were developed in different countries. After the 1960s, the emphasis was on the use of test selection methods, which are considered to be reliable and valid. IQ tests, personality tests, etc. are also being developed.
It is currently considered that professional selection is extremely necessary for any recruitment, but its complexity and scope depend mainly on the characteristics of the work itself.
Types of professional recruitment
Professional selection of the first type (elementary) applies to almost all types of routine professions. It comes down to conducting interviews with people who want to get a job in a particular job. The purpose of the interviews is for the leaders to get to know the people personally, to have an idea of their behavior in an unfamiliar environment, their appearance, to some extent, and the motives of the person.
These interviews are usually preceded by information that managers receive through the submitted documents – to appear for an interview and to work in the job. There must be informed about the education (with relevant documents), age, length of service and how many jobs the person has changed, the last job, the most important achievements, the skills possessed.
After examining the documents, an interview is scheduled, which is usually conducted by the line manager himself, who must have prior preparation for the manner of conducting. And this way can be a free conversation, structured interview, or business game (or all three).
The business game is considered in advance – a specific situation is presented, which is often encountered in a given work and the candidate is required to act in it. Certain characteristics of the behavior are observed and it is reported whether they meet the requirements. Methods related to the implementation of activity (if it is more elementary) can also be used to assess knowledge and skills for the main activity for this job (for a short period of time (10-15 minutes)) – e.g. typing, shorthand, computer work).
In this interview, the candidate receives information about the characteristics of the job – what qualities are needed, opportunities for growth, working conditions, pay, organization of work, as well as all the requirements that management may impose on him. The applicant must decide and state whether he agrees to work under these conditions. The main mistake of managers is that they either do not provide such information or provide unrealistic information (presenting the workplace in a better light). Giving unrealistic information is a mass error and allows to exceed the expectations of the employee with the real situation and to get naudov-satisfaction from work, which leads to quick departure, unwanted conflicts, and more. Reference: Articles for business and professionals, https://customer-service-us.com/
In this type of selection, the decision is not given immediately but is usually announced in writing or by phone after 1-2 days, when the manager has discussed the possibilities (for more candidates).
Depending on how many candidates apply for selection, within this type of selection we distinguish 2 types of selection:
The so-called positive selection (real, real selection). Its purpose is to rank the candidates (ie there must be more than one).
The so-called negative selection is when only one person applies for the job and there is an urgent need to take the job. Then only the contraindications are evaluated, without precision. This cannot even be called a selection – it is rather an assessment of the candidate.
The second type of professional selection (more complex). It requires prior training by psychologists (although the study itself does not always involve a psychologist). It is done in the following cases:
When the performance of this work requires a very high degree of development of certain qualities, reaching talent – these are all professions related to the arts (artists, musicians, poets, etc.), as well as mathematicians, etc.
When the profession is associated with frequent occurrence of risks and the threat of accidents, which may be associated with loss of human life or significant material resources – professions related to transport (air, water, land), dispatchers and nuclear operators power plants, etc.
Professions requiring expensive and long training – professions related to higher education, scientific degrees, postgraduate qualification.
Occupations in which there is a very high turnover associated with dissatisfaction with the activity, working conditions, and organization. More on the topic here https://www.powerhp.net/
In these four cases, according to Platonov, the specialized (specific) professional selection is required, which is more expensive and longer. Its implementation requires the use of more methodologies and the involvement of more people.